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CNC Machines(part Two)

Today, I will introduce the three parts that mentioned in the last article: CNC device, servo drive system including driver and servo motor and machine.


First, as with all computers, the CNC device works on a binary principle using only two characters 1 and 0. Series of ones and zeros which is so-call machine language is the only language the computer understands. When creating the program, operators use a list of codes and keys to express the job information.

After inputting the program, CNC device will first compile it into machine language with special built-in software, then the computer will calculate all the points and send out the control commands(electronic pulse signals) to servo drive system.


Second, servo drive system includes drives and serve motors,which is the bridge connecting CNC device and machine.

Drives transform pulse signals sent out from CNC device into motor signals, which tell the serve motor to rotate with each pulse. The rotation of the serve motor in turn rotates the lead screw which drives the linear axis. With each step of movement, the measure device sends a signal back to CNC device, which compares the current position of the drive axis with the programmed position.


Third, the mechanism of numerical control machine tools consists of two parts. Expect the common parts, such as the host movement part, the feed movement part(work table, tool rest), the auxiliary body(hydraulic cooling and lubrication apparatus) and the strut part(lathe bed, column) and so on, it also includes some special parts, like magazines and automatic tool changers.

Most of the time, several different cutting tools are used to produce a part. The tools must be replaced quickly for the nest machining operation. For this reason, the majority of CNC machine tools are equipped with automatic tool changers. They allow tool changing without the intervention of the operator. Typically, an automatic tool changer grips the tool in the spindle, pulls it out and replaces it with another tool. On most machines with automatic tool changers, the magazine can rotate in either direction, forward or reverse.

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